our brands are using the following fabrics:
Cotton is a plant fiber. It is a soft fiber that grows in a boll or protective case around the seeds of a cotton plant.
Tencel is a regenerated fiber. It consists of cellulose fiber made from dissolving wood pulp using dry jet- wet- spinning.
Lyocell Bamboo is a regenerated fiber. The wood pulp from the bamboo is treated chemically and dissolved in different ways to spin the cellulose fiber.
Merino wool is an animal fiber. The merino sheep delvers the most important type of wool for the apparel production.
Silk is an animal fiber, a protein fiber that is produced by the silkworm. Raw means that the fiber is almost fully in its natural state when used. It is not purified like other fibers.
Modal fabric is a semi-synthetic fabric made from beech tree pulp. It is a breathable and absorbent fabric fibre, is biodegradable and can be recycled.
from fiber to garment making
On this page, I would like to give you a short explanation of the clothing supply chain.
Fibers are the origin of all textiles. There are different types of fibers: natural and man-made fibers.
Fabrics are made out of fibers (non-woven) or yarns
(woven and knitted fabrics).
For the production of woven and knitted fabrics, you need the production of yarns. Yarn production starts with a blending of fibers. At this stage, also different compositions are mixed, like cotton with polyester.
Weaving and knitting
Yarns can be used in weaving and knitting. For knitted fabric, they use a single looped yarn construction. Woven fabrics made by weaving two or more threads together.
Wet processing is a general name for several processing steps before the garment making. It includes the following steps: pre-treatment (to prepare the garment for dying, for example), coloring and finishing.
When the fabric is ready for the garment making, the fabric is sent to the factory where the garment will be made. In the factory, the fabric is cut in the correct size and shape. The cutting is usually done with large cutting machines that handle large bolts of fabric.
After that, the fabric is sent to the garment makers, who assemble the garment. Clothes are made by garment workers. In fast fashion those garment workers are paid badly to make the items cheap. That is why I find it important to choose brands, that are transparent about their supply chain and can show me who is making the garment. That is why I love brands like HARA and By Signe, that produce in their own factory and pay their workers well.
Natural fibers are divided into two main classifications: plant fibers and animal fibers.
Plant fibers (often called cellulosic fibers) are extracted from plants. Cellulose is the building material and is the basic element of all plants. Cellulose fibers can be derived from nettles, full-grown trees, and plants like the flax plant. Well-known plant fibers are cotton and flax.
Animal fibers cover wool, fine animal hair, and silk—the building material of animal fibers/materials is protein.
Man-made fibers are divided into cellulose-based fibers (Viscose) and synthetic -oil based fibers, like polyester.
The best knows cellulosic fiber is Viscose. Variants are Lycocell, Cupro, acetate, and modal. Cellulose is needed to produce those fibers. For example, the cellulose used for these fibers is extracted from eucalyptus trees (Tencel) or Bamboo (Bamboo Lyocell).
Different types of synthetic fibers are made of base chemicals, which are derived from crude oil and natural gas. Polyester, polyamide (Nylon), and acryl are all synthetic fibers made of crude oil, which is a non-renewable source. These synthetics are made with a lot of chemicals and energy and are not biodegradable.
GOTS is a textile production certification that limits the use of toxic bleaches, dyes, and other chemical inputs during the production process of textiles. Because of its strict policies, it is recognized worldwide as the most demanding standard for organic textiles.
Products must be made from at least 70% certified natural fibers.
Read more about the GOTS certification here.
The OEKO-TEX standard is one of the world's best-known labels for textiles tested for harmful substances. Their most known and used one is OEKTO-TEX standard 100. This is a global standard for which substances are tested and assessed to be free from harmful levels of more than 100 substances known to be harmful to human health.
Read more about OEKO-TEX standard 100 here.